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水产养殖业

Fish Farms

 

水产养殖业正处于快速发展中,其所出产的鱼类总量与捕捞鱼类的总量几乎相同。2018年,水产养殖业的产量已达8210万吨(数据来自联合国粮农组织),自1970年以来这一数字以每年7.5%的速度增长。人们认为,发展中国家将在生产、贸易和消费方面推动渔业和水产养殖业展开重大变革和发展。由于捕捞鱼类的总量通常是不变的,因此,水产养殖业产量的增长将推动全球鱼类产量的增长。2018年,水产养殖业贡献了鱼类总产量的46%,以及人类消费鱼类产量的52%。预计到2030年,水产养殖业的产量将达到1.09亿吨,比2018年增长32%(2600万吨)(联合国粮农组织《2020 世界渔业和水产养殖业状况》报告)。

下图显示了世界渔业和水产养殖业的产量。

水产养殖业的产量

(来源:联合国粮农组织《2020 世界渔业和水产养殖业状况》报告)

区域细分

联合国粮农组织指出,亚洲在养殖鱼类的生产中占主导地位(过去20年中,亚洲占全球总产量的89%)。在此期间,非洲和美洲的份额有所增加,而欧洲和大洋洲的份额则略有下降(来源:联合国粮农组织《2020 世界渔业和水产养殖业状况》报告)。

下表列出了占2012年养殖食用鱼总产量92.7%的15个国家(联合国粮农组织:《世界渔业和水产养殖业现状》,2014年):

世界渔业和水产养殖业现状

水产饲料

鱼粉和鱼油是水产饲料的重要原料。正如联合国粮农组织《2020 世界渔业和水产养殖业状况》报告所述:“鱼粉和鱼油仍被认为是养殖鱼类最有营养和最易消化的原料,也是ω-3脂肪酸(二十碳五烯酸[EPA]和二十二碳六烯酸[DHA])的主要来源。”

鱼粉的年产量约为500万吨。越来越多的鱼粉和鱼油是采用鱼副产品生产的:“如今,估计鱼粉和鱼油总量的25%至35%是采用这些鱼副产品生产的,但这存在区域差异”。(联合国粮农组织《2020 世界渔业和水产养殖业状况》报告)。由于鱼粉利用效率的提高及其具有的某些特殊用途,水产养殖业的产量将得以提升。

有关鱼粉及其在水产养殖业中的使用的信息,请参阅以下文章:

    Fishmeal and Fish Oil and its role in Sustainable Aquaculture Publication: Andrew Jackson, International Aquafeed, 2012, September/October, p18-21
    How much whole fish does aquaculture consume? (Only in Spanish) Publication: Andrew Jackson and Francisco Aldon, InfoPesca International, 2012, 49, p24 - 27
    Is Fishmeal for Aquaculture Sustainable? Publication: Andrew Jackson, IFFO versus Willie McKenzie, Greenpeace, The Longliner, Issue 3, p10
    Connections between farmed and wild fish: Fishmeal and fish oil as ingredients in sustainable aquaculture Publication: Andrew Jackson and Jonathan Shepherd, Advancing the aquaculture Agenda: Workshop Proceedings, 2010, p 331 - 343
    Fishmeal, Fish oil - Prime feed ingredients not limiting factors for responsible aquaculture Publication: Andrew Jackson, Global Aquaculture Advocate, 2010, January/February, p14-17
    The continuing demand for sustainable Fishmeal and Fish oil in aquaculture diets Publication: Andrew Jackson, International Aquafeed, 2009, September/October, p 28 - 32
    European Aquaculture Society - Fish In - Fish Out Ratios explained Publication: Andrew Jackson, Aquaculture Europe, 2009, Vol 34 (3), p5 - 10
    How much fish to produce 1 Kg of salmon?- Fish In - Fish Out (FIFO) Ratios explained Publication: Andrew Jackson, Aquaculture Europe, 2009, Vol 34 (3), p 5 - 10
    Fishmeal "still best" Publication: Andrew Jackson, Fish Farming International, 2008, September, p 32-33
    Fishmeal and fish oil - will they limit the development of aquaculture? Publication: Andrew Jackson, Feed Technology Update, 2007, Vol 2, Issue 1
    The importance of Fishmeal and Fish oil in aquaculture diets Publication: Andrew Jackson, International Aquafeed, 2006, November/December, p16 - 19
    Protein Supply Balance FIN document 2007
    Effect of Different Dietary Protein and Oil Levels in Diet on Growth of Tilapia Comparison of Aquaculture Grade (South American) and Locally Produced Fish Meals. Research Report 1998-9
    The role of fishmeal in diets for salmonids Technical Bulletin TB24 1990
    The role of fish oil in feeds for farmed fish Technical Bulletin TB25 1990